A Pilot Surgical Trial To Evaluate Early Immunologic Pharmacodynamic Parameters For The PD-1 Checkpoint Inhibitor, Pembrolizumab (MK-3475), In Patients With Surgically Accessible Recurrent/Progressive Glioblastoma
This research study is a pilot study which is the first time investigators are examining this study drug in this participant population. Â ExperimentalÂ means that the drug is still being studied and that research doctors are trying to find out more about itÂ such as the safest dose to use, the side effects it may cause, and if the drug is effective for treating different types of cancer. It also means that the FDA (the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) has not approved the drug for your specific disease, but it has been approved for other uses. The purpose of the research study is to evaluate a study drug called Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) as a possible treatment for recurrent GBM. This study is only for patients who will be undergoing surgery for their recurrent brain tumor.
This study has two treatment Groups: Group A: Participants in Group A will receive pembrolizumab approximately 14 days prior to surgery, and after recovery from surgery every 3 weeks. Group B: Participants in Group B will NOT receive pembrolizumab prior to surgery. After recovery from surgery, they will receive pembrolizumab every 3 weeks.
The background of study drug Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) has been studied in lab experiments and in other types of cancer. Information from these studies suggests that Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) may be beneficial in your type of cancer. Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) is a humanized monoclonal antibody. An antibody is a common type of protein made in the body in response to a foreign substance. Antibodies attack foreign substances and protect against infection. Antibodies can also be produced in the laboratory for use in treating patients; an antibody that is made in the lab is also known as humanized monoclonal antibody that is designed to block the action of the receptor, PD-1. PD-1 works to help tumor cells continue to grow and multiply. There are now several approved antibodies for the therapy of cancer and other diseases. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma, but it has been approved for the treatment of other cancers.
Adults subjects who have been diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM) or have glioblastoma that has started to grow again after previous therapies. For more information about the eligibility criteria for this trial, refer to the Health Professional version.
- Have histologically confirmed World Health Organization Grade IV malignant glioma (glioblastoma or gliosarcoma). Participants will be eligible if the original histology was low-grade glioma and a subsequent histological diagnosis of glioblastoma or variants is made.
- Be willing and able to provide written informed consent/assent for the trial.
- Be 18 years of age on day of signing informed consent.
- Have a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 70 (Appendix A).
- Previous first line therapy with at least radiotherapy.
- Be at first or second relapse. Note: Relapse is defined as progression following initial therapy (i.e., radiation ± chemotherapy). For participants who had prior therapy for a low-grade glioma, the surgical diagnosis of a high-grade glioma will be considered the first relapse.
- Participants must have shown unequivocal evidence for tumor progression by MRI or CT scan.
- Demonstrate adequate organ function as defined in Table 1, all screening labs should be performed within 14 days of registration. Table 1 Adequate Organ Function Laboratory Values
- System Laboratory Value
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1,500 /mcL
- Platelets ≥100,000 / mcL
- Hemoglobin ≥9 g/dL or ≥5.6 mmol/L without transfusion or EPO dependency (within 7 days of assessment)
- Serum creatinine OR Measured or calculated creatinine clearance (GFR can also be used in place of creatinine or CrCl) ≤1.5 X institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) OR ≥60 mL/min for subject with creatinine levels > 1.5 X institutional ULN Hepatic
- Serum total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 X institutional ULN OR Direct bilirubin ≤ institutional ULN for subjects with total bilirubin levels > 1.5 institutional ULN
- AST (SGOT) and ALT (SGPT) ≤ 2.5 X institutional ULN OR ≤ 5 X institutional ULN for subjects with Gilberts syndrome
- Albumin >2.5 mg/dL
- International Normalized Ratio (INR) or Prothrombin Time (PT)
- Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) ≤1.5 X institutional ULN unless subject is receiving anticoagulant therapy as long as PT or PTT is within therapeutic range of intended use of anticoagulants ≤1.5 X institutional ULN unless subject is receiving anticoagulant therapy as long as PT or PTT is within therapeutic range of intended use of anticoagulants
- Creatinine clearance should be calculated per institutional standard.
- CT or MRI within 14 days prior of registration.
- An interval of at least 4 weeks (to registration) between prior surgical resection or one week for stereotactic biopsy.
- An interval of at least 12 weeks from the completion of radiation therapy to registration unless there is unequivocal histologic confirmation of tumor progression.
- Participants must have recovered to grade 0 or 1 or pre-treatment baseline from clinically significant toxic effects of prior therapy (including but not limited to exceptions of alopecia, laboratory values listed per inclusion criteria, and lymphopenia which is common after therapy with temozolomide).
- From registration, the following time periods must have elapsed: 5 half-lives from any investigational agent, 4 weeks from cytotoxic therapy (except 23 days for temozolomide and 6 weeks from nitrosoureas), 6 weeks from antibodies, or 4 weeks (or 5 half-lives, whichever is shorter) from other anti-tumor therapies (including vaccines). No wash-out period required from TTF.
- Participants must have sufficient tissue from prior surgery revealing glioblastoma or
variants for submission following registration. The following amount of tissue is
- 1 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue block (preferred) OR
- 10 FFPE unstained slides (5 μm thick)
- Patients must be undergoing surgery that is clinically indicated as determined by their care providers. Patients must be eligible for surgical resection with the expectation that the surgeon is able to resect at least 400mg of tumor with low risk of inducing neurological injury.
- Female subject of childbearing potential must have a negative urine or serum pregnancy within 72 hours prior to registration. If the urine test is positive or cannot be confirmed as negative, a serum pregnancy test will be required. Women are considered post-menopausal and not of child bearing potential if they have had 12 months of natural (spontaneous) amenorrhea with an appropriate clinical profile (e.g., age appropriate, history of vasomotor symptoms) or six months of spontaneous amenorrhea with serum FSH levels > 40 mIU/mL and estradiol < 20 pg/mL or have had surgical bilateral oophorectomy (with or without hysterectomy) at least six weeks ago. In the case of oophorectomy alone, only when the reproductive status of the woman has been confirmed by follow up hormone level assessment is she considered not of child bearing potential.
- Women of child-bearing potential (WOCBP), defined as all women physiologically capable
of becoming pregnant, must agree to use highly effective contraception during study
treatment and for 120 days after study discontinuation. Highly effective contraception
is defined as either:
- True Abstinence: When this is in line with the preferred and usual lifestyle of the subject. Periodic abstinence (e.g., calendar, ovulation, symptothermal, post-ovulation methods) and withdrawal are not acceptable methods of contraception.
- Sterilization: Surgical bilateral oophorectomy (with or without hysterectomy) or tubal ligation at least six weeks ago. In case of oophorectomy alone, only when the reproductive status of the woman has been confirmed by follow up hormone level assessment (as described in item 3.1.16 above).
- Male Partner Sterilization (with the appropriate post-vasectomy documentation of the absence of sperm in the ejaculate). For female subjects on the study, the vasectomised male partner must be the sole partner for that participant.
- Use of a combination of any two of the following:
- Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) or intrauterine system (IUS)
- Barrier methods of contraception: Condom or Occlusive cap (diaphragm or cervical/vault caps) with spermicidal foam/gel/film/cream/vaginal suppository
- Appropriate hormonal contraceptives (including any registered and marketed
contraceptive agent that contains an estrogen and/or a progestational agent
- including oral, subcutaneous, intrauterine, or intramuscular agents)
- Male subjects must agree to use adequate method of contraception starting with the first dose of study therapy through 120 days after the last dose of therapy.
- Current or planned participation in a study of an investigational agent or using an investigational device.
- Has a diagnosis of immunodeficiency.
- Has tumor primarily localized to the brainstem or spinal cord.
- Has presence of diffuse leptomeningeal disease or extracranial disease.
- Has received systemic immunosuppressive treatments, aside from systemic corticosteroids (such as methotrexate, chloroquine, azathioprine, etc) within six months of registration.
- Has received anti-angiogenic or anti-VEGF targeted agents (e.g. bevacizumab, cediranib, aflibercept, vandetanib, XL-184, sunitinib, etc).
- Requires treatment with high dose systemic corticosteroids defined as dexamethasone > 4 mg/day or bioequivalent for at least 3 consecutive days within 2 weeks of registration.
- Has received prior interstitial brachytherapy, implanted chemotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery or therapeutics delivered by local injection or convection enhanced delivery.
- Has history of known coagulopathy that increases risk of bleeding or a history of clinically significant hemorrhage within 12 months of registration.
- Has a known history of active TB (Bacillus Tuberculosis).
- Has gastrointestinal bleeding or any other hemorrhage/bleeding event CTCAE Grade > 3 within 6 months of registration.
- Has a known additional malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment within 3 years of registration. Exceptions include basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or in situ cervical cancer that has undergone potentially curative therapy.
- Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years (i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs). Replacement therapy (eg., thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is not considered a form of systemic treatment.
- Has known history of, or any evidence of active non-infectious pneumonitis.
- Has an active infection requiring systemic therapy.
- Has a history or current evidence of any condition, therapy, or laboratory abnormality that might confound the results of the trial, interfere with the subject's participation for the full duration of the trial, or is not in the best interest of the subject to participate, in the opinion of the treating investigator. Examples include but are not limited to symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements.
- Has known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with cooperation with the requirements of the trial.
- Has received prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CD137, or anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody (including ipilimumab or any other antibody or drug specifically targeting T-cell co-stimulation or checkpoint pathways).
- Has a known history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies).
- Has known active Hepatitis B (e.g., HBsAg reactive) or Hepatitis C (e.g., HCV RNA [qualitative] is detected).
- Has received a live vaccine within 30 days prior to registration.
- Has a known hypersensitivity to any of the study therapy products.
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