(Abstract from PubMed)
"Subcortical white matter stroke is a common stroke subtype. White matter stroke stimulates adjacent oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to divide and migrate to the lesion but stroke OPCs have only a limited differentiation into mature oligodendrocytes. To understand the molecular systems that are active in OPC responses in white matter stroke, OPCs were virally labeled and laser-captured in the region of partial damage adjacent to the infarct in male mice. RNAseq indicates two distinct OPC transcriptomes associated with the proliferative and limited-regeneration phases of OPCs after stroke. Molecular pathways related to nuclear receptor activation, ECM turnover and lipid biosynthesis are activated during proliferative OPC phases after stroke; inflammatory and growth factor signaling are activated in the later stage of limited OPC differentiation. Within ECM proteins, Matrilin-2 is induced early after stroke and then rapidly downregulated. Prediction of upstream regulators of the OPC stroke transcriptome identify several candidate molecules, including Inhibin A-a negative regulator of Matrilin-2. Inhibin A is induced in reactive astrocytes after stroke, including in humans. In functional assays, Matrilin-2 induces OPC differentiation, and Inhibin A inhibits OPC Matrilin-2 expression and inhibits OPC differentiation. In vivo, Matrilin-2 promotes motor recovery after white matter stroke, and promotes OPC differentiation and ultrastructural evidence of remyelination. These studies show that white matter stroke induces an initial proliferative and reparative response in OPCs, but this is blocked by a local cellular niche where reactive astrocytes secrete Inhibin A, downregulating Matrilin-2 and blocking myelin repair and recovery.
Stroke in the cerebral white matter of the brain is common. The biology of damage and recovery in this stroke subtype are not well defined. These studies show use cell-specific RNA sequencing and gain of function studies to show that white matter stroke induces a glial signaling niche, present in both humans and mice, between reactive astrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Astrocyte secretion of InhibinA and downregulation of oligodendrocyte precursor production of Matrilin-2 limits OPC differentiation, tissue repair and recovery in this disease."