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Bladder cancer is marked by the formation of malignant cells in the tissues of the bladder, the organ where urine is stored. The bladder is an organ located in the lower abdomen used to store urine. The urine travels from the kidneys to the bladder by two paired tubes called ureters. Bladder cancer occurs when uncontrolled growth and malignancy develops from cells originating from the bladder lining or urothelium. According to the American Cancer Society, bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men, but it is less common in women.
Bladder cancer types:
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)
- Urothelial carcinoma- Arises from the bladder’s inner lining or urothelium. About 90 percent of bladder cancers in the United States are classified as this form of bladder cancer.
Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC)
- Squamous cell carcinoma – This type of bladder cancer involves the thin, flat cells of the bladder. Squamous cell carcinoma is usually associated with chronic inflammation and comprises less than 5 percent of bladder cancer cases.
- Adenocarcinoma – This form of bladder cancer begins in the cells that release mucus and other fluids and can arise from remnants of the umbilical cord.