Cannabidiol Effects on Craving and Relapse Prevention in Opioid Use Disorder
This research aims to determine the effects and safety of cannabidiol (CBD) (ATL5 softgel capsules) as an adjunctive therapy for patients, who have Opioid Use Disorder and are taking buprenorphine + naloxone or methadone. Buprenorphine + naloxone and methadone is an approved treatment for Opioid Use Disorder, but relapse to opioid misuse is common among patients who receive this treatment. Finding an adjunctive treatment that reduces relapse for these patients would be helpful.We will recruit participants from the Tarzana Treatment Center (TTC) in the San Fernando Valley. They will be receiving buprenorphine + naloxone or methadone as part of residential therapy. Potential participants who pass initial screening and wish to continue in the study will provide written, informed consent and will complete a 2-day evaluation, including blood and urine tests, questionnaires about their mood, medical, psychiatric and drug use history and physical exam. Up to 60 participants who meet all eligibility criteria will be invited to complete baseline assessments (blood and urine tests, questionnaires), and will be assigned randomly to receive CBD (600mg/day) or placebo, corresponding to two groups of up to 30 participants each. After the baseline measurements, participants will take part in a 28-day treatment phase for 4 weeks. They will take the study medication under supervision (CBD 300 mg twice daily or placebo). Questionnaires on opioid craving, withdrawal, and mood symptoms will be administered daily during the treatment period excluding weekends. After the 28-day intervention, participants will complete the questionnaires and undergo urine drug tests in 4 weekly follow-up visits. The study will last ~10 weeks, comprising three periods: a screening period (2-weeks when participants are stabilized on buprenorphine + naloxone or methadone in residential treatment at the Tarzana Treatment Center), a treatment period (4 weeks when study CBD or placebo is administered at Tarzana Treatment Center), and a follow-up period (4 weeks after termination of the test intervention).
- Ability to read and speak English and has provided written informed consent.
- Age of 18-65 years (inclusive).
- Meeting criteria for an OUD according to the MINI for ≥ 3 months before screening.
- Self-report of opioid use in the 60 days before screening; verified by treatment center records.
- On a stable dose of ≥12 mg buprenorphine, either alone, or in combination with naloxone (buprenorphine/naloxone ratio of 4/1) for at least 7 days prior to starting and for the duration of the treatment phase of the study. OR, receiving methadone maintenance therapy for at least 7 days prior to starting and for the duration of the treatment phase of the study.
- If female, being surgically sterile or willing to use birth control (e.g., oral contraceptives, condoms, intrauterine device) or willingness to abstain from sex throughout the study.
- Body Mass Index (BMI) between 17.5 and 35 kg/m2; total body weight > 110 lb (50 kg).
- Currently in residential treatment at the Tarzana Treatment Center.
- History of sensitivity to a CBD product or any of the ingredients in the study drug, including glycerin or gelatin.
- A condition that may affect drug absorption (e.g., gastrectomy).
- Taking a medications that has clinically significant interactions with CBD or are contraindicated for the study (check with study physician).
- Positive urine test for THC at screening.
- Self-report of using CBD at screening.
- PK analysis at screening showing evidence of CBD use (a signal that is ≥ three times the background noise at the corresponding CBD retention time and MS2 transition).
- Physiological dependence on alcohol or a sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine drug.
- Current medication-assisted treatment with naltrexone.
- Acute opioid withdrawal symptoms, as defined by a score on the COWS > 4.
- Clinical laboratory finding of AST or ALT > 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or bilirubin > 1.5 times ULN.
- AIDS or HIV positive status (because treatment medications have potential interactions with CBD).
- Pregnancy or lactation.
- Clinically significant EKG abnormalities, as determined by the study physician, including the following: QTc >450 msec (men) or >470 (women) or QRS interval >120 msec (If QTc or QRS interval exceed these cutoff points, EKG will be repeated twice and the average of the three QTc values used to determine eligibility.), congenital long QT syndrome, history of prolonged QT in the 3 months before screening, corrected QT interval (Fridericia's - QTcF) >450 msec (male) or >470 msec (female) or history of risk factors for Torsades de Pointes.
- For women: any value outside reference ranges on a hormonal battery [estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine index, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, T3 uptake, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroxine], followed by an abnormal ovarian ultrasound finding.
- Clinically significant cardiovascular, hematologic, hepatic, renal, or endocrine abnormalities, as determined by the study physician.
- Meeting criteria on the MINI for schizophrenia, Bipolar I disorder, psychotic disorder, having active suicidal ideation, or suicide attempt in the past 12 months. Or, answers "yes" to questions 4 or 5 on C-SSRS. NOTE: Participants with other psychiatric conditions, such as major depression, generalized anxiety, dysthymia, social phobia or specific phobia may be enrolled in the study if they are clinically stable.
- On the cue-induced opiate craving task at screening, the participant does not have a score of at least 25 (on a visual analogue scale with a maximum score of 100) for at least one image within one category. Note: Groups of images may be separated into smoking cues, pills and bottles, and injection paraphernalia. For example, for injection cues, a picture of a needle and syringe may elicit a craving response, though other images in the same group (i.e., picture of arm with vein bulging) do not elicit craving.