First-Generation College Graduates
Other Selected
Implicit Bias
Minority Tax
Impact on Medical Students
COVID-19 Disparities


Achieving equity in Residency and Fellowship Application with a Partial Blindfold: A Call for Measuring the Distance Traveled. Vijayan T, Graber CJ, Harris CE, Kozman D. ACP Journals. 2023

Asian Americans and Racial Justice in Medicine. Ko M, Ngo V, Zhang A, Mabeza R, Hahn M. New England Journal of Medicine. 2024

Diversifying the Medical Pathway in a Post–Affirmative Action World. Essien UR, Agbafe V, Norris KC.JAMA. 2023;330(14):1325–1326. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.17089

Use of Race and Ethnicity in Medicine. Norris KC, Harris C. 2023 Dec 08

Diversifying Graduate Medical Education & the Urology Workforce: Re-imagining our Structures, Policies, Practices, Norms & Values. Simons ECG, Thavaseelan S, Saigal C, Downs T. Urology. 2021 Jun 26:S0090-4295(21)00554-9. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2021.06.011. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34186139.

Directing Research Toward Health Equity: a Health Equity Research Impact Assessment. Castillo EG, Harris C. J Gen Intern Med. 2021 May 4:1–6. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06789-3. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33948804; PMCID: PMC8096150.

Initial Clinical Needs Among Transgender and Non-binary Individuals in a Large, Urban Gender Health Program. Gaither TW, Williams K, Mann C, Weimer A, Ng G, Litwin MS. J Gen Intern Med. 2021 Apr 26. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06791-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33904031.

Culturally Competent Clinical Care for Older Sexual Minority Adults: A Scoping Review of the Literature. MacCarthy S, Darabidian B, Elliott MN, Schuster MA, Burton C, Saliba D. Res Aging. 2021 Mar 26:1640275211004152. doi: 10.1177/01640275211004152. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33769144.

Time to Repair the Effects of Racism on Kidney Health Inequity.  Mohottige D, Diamantidis CJ, Norris KC, Boulware LE. Am J Kidney Dis. 2021 Feb 24:S0272-6386(21)00437-6. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.01.010. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33639186.

Social Determinants of Kidney Health: Focus on PovertyNorris KC, Beech BM. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2021 Jan 13:CJN.12710820. doi: 10.2215/CJN.12710820. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33441465.

We're in This Together: A Reflection on How Bioethics and Public Health Can Collectively Advance Scientific Efforts Towards Addressing Racism. Truong M, Sharif MZ. J Bioeth Inq. 2021 Jan 7. doi: 10.1007/s11673-020-10069-w. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33415592.

The 5 Rs of Cultural Humility: A Conceptual Model for Health Care Leaders. Robinson D, Masters C, Ansari A. Am J Med. 2021 Feb;134(2):161-163. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.09.029. Epub 2020 Oct 25. PMID: 33198950.

Perspectives on finances and mental health status among Low-income Los Angeles Latinas. Blanco, L. R., Baker, J. A., Friedman, J. A., Singh, K. T., Brown, A. F., Moon, S. D., Carson, S. L., Hsu, A., & Pregler, J.. (2020).  Journal of Financial Therapy, 11(2). doi:10.4148/1944-9771.1221

Removal of Race From Estimates of Kidney Function: First, Do No Harm. Norris KC, Eneanya ND, Boulware LE. JAMA. Published online December 02, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.23373

Correction to "Relationship of neighborhood social determinants of health on racial/ethnic mortality disparities in US veterans-Mediation and moderating effects". Wong MSSteers WNHoggatt KJ, Ziaeian B, Washington DL.Health Serv Res. 2020 Dec;55(6):1021. PMID: 33258131 No abstract available.

Racial Differences in the Cesarean Section Rates Among Women Veterans Using Department of Veterans Affairs Community Care. Mattocks KM, Kroll-Desrosiers A, Kinney R, Bastian LA, Bean-Mayberry B, Goldstein KM, Shivakumar G, Copeland L.Med Care. 2020 Nov 16. PMID: 33201084

Racial and ethnic disparities in care for health system-affiliated physician organizations and non-affiliated physician organizations. Timbie JW, Kranz AM, DeYoreo M, Eshete-Roesler B, Elliott MN, Escarce JJ, Totten ME, Damberg CL. Health Serv Res. 2020 Oct 23. PMID: 33094846

Portals of Change: How Patient Portals Will Ultimately Work for Safety Net Populations. Casillas A, Abhat A, Mahajan A, Moreno G, Brown AF, Simmons S, Szilagyi P. Journal of medical Internet research. 2020 Oct 23;22(10):e16835.

A Randomized Encouragement Trial to Increase Mail Order Pharmacy Use and Medication Adherence in Patients with Diabetes. Ramachandran B, Trinacty CM, Wharam JF, Duru OK, Dyer WT, Neugebauer RS, Karter AJ, Brown SD, Marshall CJ, Wiley D, Ross-Degnan D. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2020 Oct 1:1-8.

The 5Rs of Cultural Humility: A Conceptual Model for Healthcare Leaders, The American Journal of Medicine (2020). Dea Robinson PhD, MA, FACMPE , Christie Masters MD, MBA, MHA, BCC, SFHM , Aziz Ansari DO, SFHM, FAAHPM, FACP. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.09.029

Race and ethnicity predict bone markers and fracture in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease. Laster M, Denburg M, Okuda Y, ... , Norris K, Salusky IB.J Bone Miner Res. 2020 Sep 22.PMID: 32960469

Mobile-Enhanced Prevention Support Study for Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women Leaving Jail: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. Edwards GG, Reback CJ, Cunningham WE, Hilliard CL, McWells C, Mukherjee S, Weiss RE, Harawa NT. JMIR Res Protoc. 2020 Sep 22;9(9):e18106.PMID: 32959786

How Clinically Relevant Is C-Reactive Protein for Blacks with Metabolic Syndrome to Predict Microalbuminuria? Sinha SK, Shaheen M, Singh VR, ... , Norris KC, Nicholas SB.Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2020 Sep 3.PMID: 32896227

The longitudinal association of changes in diurnal cortisol features with fasting glucose: MESA. Dias JP, Joseph JJ, Kluwe B, Zhao S, Shardell M, Seeman T, Needham BL, Wand GS, Kline D, Brock G, Castro-Diehl C, Golden SH. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2020 Sep;119:104698. 

Interventions Incorporating Therapeutic Alliance to Improve Hemodialysis Treatment Adherence in Black Patients with End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) in the United States: A Systematic Review. Blumrosen C, Desta R, Cavanaugh KL, Laferriere HE, Bruce MA, Norris KC, Griffith DM, Umeukeje EM. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2020 Aug 17;14:1435-1444.  

Death by racism. Barber S. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2020 Aug 1;20(8):903.

Nurses should oppose police violence and unjust policing in healthcareKia Skrine JeffersHafifa SiddiqAdrienne S. Martinez-Hollingsworth, Shoshana V. Aronowitz, Laura Sinko, Jasmine L. Travers, D. Anthony Tolentino, Jade Burns, Sue Anne Bell, Dana C. Beck, Jose I. Gutierrez, Dominique Bulgin, Kirstin A. Manges, Lisa N. Mansfield, Amanda P. Bettencourt, Jin Jun, Alex J. Fauer, Rachele K. Lipsky, Gillian I. Adynski, Kristen R. Choi. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2020.

Race/ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status and cardio-metabolic riskMerkin SSKarlamangla A, Roux AD, Shrager S, Watson KSeeman T. SSM Popul Health. 2020 Jul 23;11:100634.  

Community Racial Composition and Hospitalization among Patients Receiving In-center Hemodialysis. Golestaneh L, Cavanaugh KL, Lo Y, Karaboyas A, Melamed ML, Johns TS, Norris KC. Am J Kidney Dis. 2020 Jul 12:S0272-6386(20)30789-7.  

Race Differences in Patient Experience by Hispanic Ethnicity Among Veteran Health Administration Users. Wong MSSteers WN, Hoggatt KJ, Ziaeian BWashington DL. J Gen Intern Med. 2020 Jul 11. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32654088

Serum Aldosterone Concentration, Blood Pressure, and Coronary Artery Calcium: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Inoue K, Goldwater D, Allison M, Seeman T, Kestenbaum BR, Watson KE. Hypertension. 2020 Jul;76(1):113-120. 

Social regulation of inflammation related gene expression in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Brown KM, Diez-Roux AV, Smith JA, Needham BL, Mukherjee B, Ware EB, Liu Y, Cole SWSeeman TE, Kardia SLR. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2020 Jul;117:104654.  

“Health Inequity in Veteran Populations”Health Equity: A Solutions-Focused Approach. Washington DLIzuchukwu ISHarris CE. (2020). New York: Springer Publishing Company, pp. 287-301.

Sleep and Inflammation During Adolescents' Transition to Young Adulthood. Park H, Chiang JJ, Bower JE, Irwin MR, Almeida DM, Seeman TEMcCreath H, Fuligni AJ. J Adolesc Health. 2020 Jun 22:S1054-139X(20)30202-0.  

Trends in Readmission and Mortality Rates Following Heart Failure Hospitalization in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System From 2007 to 2017. Parizo JT, Kohsaka S, Sandhu AT, Patel J, Heidenreich PA. JAMA cardiology. 2020 Jun 17. PMID: 32584921

We have to teach doctors about injustice. Sandesara U, Kelly L, Goss A. BMJ Opinion. 2020 Jun 12.

George Floyd's Autopsy and the Structural Gaslighting of America. Crawford-Roberts A, Shadravan S, Tsai J, Barceló NE, Gips A, Mensah M, Roxas N, Kung A, Darby A, Misa N, Morton I, Shen A. Scientific American. 2020 Jun 6.

Subjective social status and health during high school and young adulthood. Rahal D, Huynh V, Cole S, Seeman T, Fuligni A. Dev Psychol. 2020 Jun;56(6):1220-1232.  

Telemedicine: a solution to disparities in human immunodeficiency virus prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake, and a framework to scalability and equity. Wong KY, Stafylis C, Klausner JD. Mhealth. 2020;6. PMID: 32270013

Colorectal cancer screening among Hispanics in the United States: Disparities, modalities, predictors, and regional variation. Viramontes O, Bastani R, Yang L, Glenn B, Herrmann AK, May FP. Prev Med. 2020 May 28:106146. PMID: 32473957

Writing Accountability Groups Are a Tool for Academic Success: The Obesity Health Disparities PRIDE Program. Thorpe Jr RJ, Beech BM, Norris KC, Heitman E, Bruce MA. Ethnicity & disease. 2020 Apr 23;30(2):295. PMID: 32346275

The NIDDK high school short-term research experience for underrepresented persons. Rivers R, Norris KC, Hui G, Halpern-Felsher B, Dodge-Francis C, Guerrero LR, Golshan A, Brinkley K, Tran K, McLaughlin S, Antolin N. Ethnicity & Disease. 2020 Jan 16;30(1):5-14. PMID: 31969778

Mentoring the next generation of behavioral health scientists to promote health equity. Milburn NG, Hamilton AB, Lopez S, Wyatt GE. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2019;89(3):369.

Building Immigration-Informed, Cross-Sector Coalitions: Findings from the Los Angeles County Health Equity for Immigrants Summit. Saadi A, Cheffers ML, Taira B, Trotzky-Sirr R, Parmar P, Samra S, Morrison JL, Shah S, Schneberk T. Health equity. 2019 Aug 1;3(1):431-5. PMID: 31448353

California And The Changing American Narrative On Diversity, Race, And Health. Health Affairs. Hsu P, Bryant MC, Hayes-Bautista TM, Partlow KR, Hayes-Bautista DE. 2018 Sep 1;37(9):1394-9. PMID: 30179544


The Epidemiology of Diversity: COVID-19 Case Rate Patterns in CaliforniaHsu P, Hayes-Bautista DE. J Immigr Minor Health. 2021 Feb 23:1–6. doi: 10.1007/s10903-021-01159-x. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33620661; PMCID: PMC7901169.

Racial Disparities in Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations During the COVID-19 PandemicLeuchter RK, Villaflores CA, Norris KC, Sorensen A, Vangala S, Sarkisian CA.  AJPM. March 19, 2021; DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.01.036

Healthcare Disparities and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of Primary Language and Translations of Visitor Policies at NCI-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers.  Dhawan N, Subbiah IM, Yeh JC, Thompson B, Hildner Z, Jawed A, Prommer E, Sinclair C. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2021 Feb 6:S0885-3924(21)00165-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2021.01.140. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33561493; PMCID: PMC7955247.

Beyond the 405 and the 5: Geographic variations and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates in Los Angeles County. Vijayan T, Shin M, Adamson PCHarris CSeeman TNorris KCGoodman-Meza D. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020 Nov 3.

COVID-19, health disparities and the US electionNorris K, Gonzalez C. EClinicalMedicine. 2020 Oct 27.

Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders in COVID-19: Emerging Disparities Amid Discrimination. Wang D, Gee GC, Bahiru EYang EHHsu JJ. Journal of general internal medicine. 2020 Oct 2:1-4.

COVID-19, Latino Working-Age Adults, and CitizenshipDavid E Hayes-Bautista, PhD, Paul Hsu, MPH, PhD​, Giselle D Hernandez. Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture. UCLA Health. 2020.

The association of race and COVID-19 mortality. Golestaneh L, Neugarten J, Fisher M, Billett HH, Gil MR, Johns T, Yunes M, Mokrzycki MH, Coco M, Norris KC, Perez HR, Scott S, Kim RS, Bellin E. EClinicalMedicine. 2020 Aug;25:100455.  

COVID-19‒ Associated Deaths in Working-Age Latino AdultsDavid E Hayes-Bautista, PhD and Paul Hsu, MPH, PhD​. Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture. UCLA Health. 2020.

COVID-19 and Diversity: The Emerging Picture in CaliforniaDavid E Hayes-Bautista, PhD and Paul Hsu, MPH, PhD​. Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture. UCLA Health. 2020.

Applying Community-Partnered Participatory Research Approaches to Develop COVID-19 Solutions. Wells KB, Jones F, Norris KC. Ethn Dis. 2020 Jul 9;30(3):433-436.

First-Generation College Graduates

Socioeconomic roots of academic faculty. Morgan, A.C., LaBerge, N., Larremore, D.B. et al. Nat Hum Behav 6, 1625–1633 (2022).

We are worthy. Chaplin, Lan. Science. 2022 Nov 11;378(6620):674.

First-generation physician-scientists are under-represented and need better support. Christophers, B., Macedo, B., Nieblas-Bedolla, E. et al.  Nat Med 27, 752–755 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01352-3

Challenges Facing First-Generation College Graduates in Medicine School: A Qualitative Analysis. Catherine Havemann, Hyacinth R. C. Mason, Regina G. Russell,Alejandra Casillas, Mytien Nguyen, Dowin Boatright, Alexis Webber, Jon Andre Parilla, Abraham Gallegos,Tasha R. Wyatt

The maintenance of classism in medical education: "time" as a form of social capital in first-generation and low-income medical students. Wyatt TR, Casillas A, Webber A, Parrilla JA, Boatright D, Mason H.Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2023 Aug 1. doi: 10.1007/s10459-023-10270-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37526802.

Other Selected

Black Scientists Are Not the Door to Diversity. Hayes CA. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00375. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34115483.

Promoting Equity for Women in Medicine - Seizing a Disruptive Opportunity. Jagsi R, Fuentes-Afflick E, Higginbotham E. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jun 17;384(24):2265-2267. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2104228. Epub 2021 Jun 12. PMID: 34134182.

Misogyny in Medicine. Kaye EC. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jun 17;384(24):2267-2269. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2103616. Epub 2021 Jun 12. PMID: 34133858.

Tools for Responding to Patient-Initiated Verbal Sexual Harassment: A Workshop for Trainees and Faculty. Hock, L. E., Barlow, P. B., Scruggs, B. A., Oetting, T. A., Martinez, D. A., Abràmoff, M. D., & Shriver, E. M. (2021).  MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources17, 11096. https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11096

What’s the difference between diversity, inclusion and equity?. General Assembly Blog [Online], available at: https://generalassemb. ly/blog/diversity-inclusion-equity-differences-in-meaning/(accessed 7 June 2019). Bolger M. 2017.

A memo to President-elect Biden: Don’t coddle white racial anxieties. Perry, AM. The Brookings Institution. 2020 Nov 12.

Social Determinants of Health and Diabetes: A Scientific Review. Hill-Briggs F, Adler NE, Berkowitz SA, Chin MH, Gary-Webb TL, Navas-Acien A, Thornton PL, Haire-Joshu D. Diabetes Care. 2020 Nov 2.

How to Promote Racial Equity in the Workplace. Livingston R. Harv Bus Rev. 2020 Sep 1;98(5):64-72.

Racial Disparities in the Massachusetts Criminal System. Elizabeth Tsai Bishop, Brook Hopkins, Chijindu Obiofuma, Felix Owusu. The Criminal Justice Policy Program, Harvard Law School. 2020 Sep. 

A Judge Asked Harvard to Find Out Why So Many Black People Were In Prison. They Could Only Find 1 Answer: Systemic Racism. Michael Harriot. Criminal Justice, The Root. 2020 Sep. 

Trends in Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Internal Medicine Subspecialty Fellowships From 2006 to 2018. Santhosh L, Babik JM. JAMA Network Open. 2020 Feb 5;3(2):e1920482-.

Reducing racial inequities in health: Using what we already know to take action. Williams DR, Cooper LA. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019 Jan;16(4):606.

Ignoring the past: Coverage of slavery and slave patrols in criminal justice texts. Journal of Criminal Justice Education. Turner KB, Giacopassi D, Vandiver M. 2006 Apr 1;17(1):181-95.

Confronting institutionalized racism. Jones CP. Phylon (1960-). 2002 Jan 1:7-22.

Challenges Facing First-Generation College Graduates in Medical School: A Qualitative Analysis | Medical Education | JAMA Network Open | JAMA Network

Implicit Bias

It Can Be Done! A Skills-Based Elective in Implicit Bias Recognition and Management for Preclinical Medical Students. Gonzalez CM, Walker SA, Rodriguez N, Karp E, Marantz PR. Academic Medicine. 2020 Dec 1;95(12S):S150-5.

‘Nine times out of 10, I was completely brushed off’: Black Chicagoans confront bias in health care, hope for change. Schencker L. Chicago Tribune. 2020 Aug 13. 

'You are not listening to me': Black women on pain and implicit bias in medicine. Rao V. Today. 2020 Jul 27.  

A yearslong push to remove racist bias from kidney testing gains new ground. Gaffney T. STAT News. 2020 Jul 17. 

Medicine Has An Implicit Bias Problem, What Needs To Be Done. Lee B. Forbes. 2019 Jul 6. 

Addressing bias and reducing discrimination: The professional responsibility of health care providers. Mateo CM, Williams DR. Academic Medicine. 2020 Dec 1;95(12S):S5-10.

How clinicians and educators can mitigate implicit bias in patient care and candidate selection in medical education. Capers IV Q. ATS Scholar. 2020 Sep;1(3):211-7.

Minority Tax

The time tax put on scientists of colour. Gewin V. Nature. 2020 Jul;583(7816):479-81. 

Addressing disparities in academic medicine: what of the minority tax?. Rodríguez JE, Campbell KM, Pololi LH. BMC Medical Education. 2015 Dec;15(1):1-5. 

Impact on Medical Students  

Asian Americans and Racial Justice in Medicine. Ko M, Ngo V, Zhang A, Mabeza R, Hahn M. New England Journal of Medicine. 2024

Diversifying the Medical Pathway in a Post–Affirmative Action World. Essien UR, Agbafe V, Norris KC.JAMA. 2023;330(14):1325–1326. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.17089

From Portraits to Role Models — Why We Need Black Physicians in Academic Medicine. Owoseni, AV. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2020 Nov 28.

# WhiteCoatsForBlackLives—Addressing Physicians’ Complicity in Criminalizing Communities. Perritt J. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020 Nov 5;383(19):1804-6.

Twelve tips for responding to microaggressions and overt discrimination: When the patient offends the learner. Wheeler DJ, Zapata J, Davis D, Chou C. Medical Teacher. 2018 Oct 2.

Promoting diversity and advancing racial equity in the biomedical sciences. Gibbs K. The American Society for Cell Biology. 2020 Sep 3.

Why doesn’t medical school prioritize social justice. Nolen L. Boston Globe. 2020 Aug 14. 

Racism, Hazing and Other Abuse Taints Medical Training, Students Say. Gordon M. National Public Radio. 2020 Jun 16. 

Assessment of the prevalence of medical student mistreatment by sex, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Hill KA, Samuels EA, Gross CP, Desai MM, Zelin NS, Latimore D, Huot SJ, Cramer LD, Wong AH, Boatright D. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2020 May 1;180(5):653-65.

Building a Tool Kit for Medical and Dental Students: Addressing Microaggressions and Discrimination on the Wards. Sandoval RS, Afolabi T, Said J, Dunleavy S, Chatterjee A, Ölveczky D. MedEdPORTAL. 2020 Apr 3;16.

COVID-19 Disparities

Race gaps in COVID-19 deaths are even bigger than they appear. Ford T, Reber S, Reeves RV. Up Front. 2020 Jun 16.

What Do Coronavirus Racial Disparities Look Like State By State. Godoy M, Wood D. National Public Radio. 2020 May 30.

Covid-19’s devastating toll on black and Latino Americans, in one chart. Scott D. Vox. 2020 Apr 17. 

U.S. Correctional Facilities Report Steep Rise in Coronavirus Infection Rate. Roos M. Newsweek. 2020 Apr 16. 

Native American Deaths Rising at Alarming Rate from COVID-19. Jack F. Electronic Urban Report. 2020 Apr 15. 

COVID-19: a potential public health problem for homeless populations. Tsai J, Wilson M. The Lancet Public Health. 2020 Apr 1;5(4):e186-7.