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Thyroid problems can be challenging to diagnose because many common symptoms could be attributed to other conditions. If you experience thyroid disease symptoms, evaluation may start with your primary care physicians who can perform a physical examination and obtain thyroid function blood tests.  If a thyroid condition is detected, they may refer you to an endocrinologist (a specialist in diagnosing hormone conditions) who is familiar with the newest management options.

How to Detect?

To determine whether you have thyroid disease, one or more of the following diagnostics may be performed or

  • Physical exam: Your doctor may feel your neck to determine if the thyroid is enlarged or if any growths have formed.
  • Blood tests: There are a number of blood tests that check the function of your thyroid gland. These include tests of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (also called T4), Triiodothyronine (also called T3), antibodies, and thyroglobulin.
  • Imaging:
    • Biopsy or Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) with cytology,molecular and genetic testing, as needed, to assess the risk of thyroid cancer.
    • Surgical Referral, as needed.
    • Interventional Radiology for additional imaging and Radiofrequency Ablation, if indication Oncology for management of advanced thyroid cancer
    • Thyroid Ultrasound
    • Nuclear Medicine Uptake Scan

Thyroid Cancer & Thyroid Nodules

  • Papillary thyroid cancer
  • Follicular thyroid cancer
  • Hurthle cell thyroid cancer
  • Medullary thyroid cancer
  • Solitary thyroid nodules
  • Thyroid cysts
  • Multinodular goiter
  • Poorly (insular and anaplastic) differentiated thyroid cancer
  • Thyroid disease in radiation-exposed individuals (including
  • childhood cancer survivors)


  • Graves’ Disease
  • Toxic multinodular goiter
  • Toxic solitary nodule
  • More about hyperthyroidism


  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis)
  • Infectious thyroiditis
  • Painless thyroiditis
  • Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain’s thyroiditis)
  • Drug-induced or radiation thyroiditis
  • Fibrous thyroiditis (Riedel's thyroiditis)
  • Thyroid Complications of Oncology Treatments


  • Post-surgical hypothyroidism
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  • More about hypothyroidism

Thyroid disease in pregnancy

  • Find out more about thyroid disease in pregnancy