Research Opportunities:

The resident has opportunities to participate in clinical research in areas directly related to patient safety, quality, and innovative treatment techniques.

Government funding: NIH R01, R21, SBIR, U19, DOD , NSF

Industry funding: Varian, Siemens, ViewRay and Accuray

Resident Research Publications:


  1. Lauria, M.; Navaratna, R.; O’Connell, D.; Santhanam, A.; Lee, P.; Low, D. A. Technical Note: Investigating Internal-External Motion Correlation Using Fast Helical CT. Med. Phys. 2021.
  2. Gao, Y.; Yoon, S.; Savjani, R.; Pham, J.; Kalbasi, A.; Raldow, A.; Low, D. A.; Hu, P.; Yang, Y. Comparison and Evaluation of Distortion Correction Techniques on an MR-Guided Radiotherapy System. Med. Phys. 2021, 48 (2), 691–702.
  3. Gao, Y.; Lotey, R.; Low, D. A.; Hu, P.; Yang, Y. Technical Note: Validation of an Automatic ACR Phantom Quality Assurance Tool for an MR-Guided Radiotherapy System. Med. Phys. 2021.
  4. Liu, X.; Emami, H.; Nejad-Davarani, S. P.; Morris, E.; Schultz, L.; Dong, M.; K Glide-Hurst, C. Performance of Deep Learning Synthetic CTs for MR-Only Brain Radiation Therapy. J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 2021, 22 (1), 308–317.


  1. Stiehl, B.; Lauria, M.; O’Connell, D.; Hasse, K.; Barjaktarevic, I. Z.; Lee, P.; Low, D. A.; Santhanam, A. P. A Quantitative Analysis of Biomechanical Lung Model Consistency Using 5DCT Datasets. Med. Phys. 2020, 47 (11), 5555–5567.
  2. Shang, D.; Gu, W.; Landers, A.; Woods, K.; Yu, V.; Neph, R.; Tenn, S.; Sheng, K. Technical Note: Robust Individual Thermoluminescence Dosimeter Tracking Using Optical Fingerprinting. Med. Phys. 2020, 47 (1), 267–271.
  3. Lyu, Q.; Neph, R.; Yu, V. Y.; Ruan, D.; Boucher, S.; Sheng, K. Many-Isocenter Optimization for Robotic Radiotherapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 2020, 65 (4), 045003.
  4. Morris, E. D.; Aldridge, K.; Ghanem, A. I.; Zhu, S.; Glide-Hurst, C. K. Incorporating Sensitive Cardiac Substructure Sparing into Radiation Therapy Planning. J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 2020, 21 (11), 195–204.
  5. Hu, Q.; Yu, V. Y.; Yang, Y.; Hu, P.; Sheng, K.; Lee, P. P.; Kishan, A. U.; Raldow, A. C.; O’Connell, D. P.Woods, K. E.; Cao, M. Practical Safety Considerations for Integration of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Radiation Therapy. Pract. Radiat. Oncol. 2020, 10 (6), 443–453.
  6. Hasse, K.; Hsieh, S. S.; O’Connell, D.; Stiehl, B.; Min, Y.; Neylon, J.; Low, D. A.; Santhanam, A. P. Systematic Feasibility Analysis of Performing Elastography Using Reduced Dose CT Lung Image Pairs. Med. Phys. 2020, 47 (8), 3369–3375.
  7. Fu, J.; Singhrao, K.; Cao, M.; Yu, V.; Santhanam, A. P.; Yang, Y.; Guo, M.; Raldow, A. C.; Ruan, D.; Lewis, J. H. Generation of Abdominal Synthetic CTs from 0.35T MR Images Using Generative Adversarial Networks for MR-Only Liver Radiotherapy. Biomed. Phys. Eng. Express 2020, 6 (1), 015033.
  8. Cao, M.; Stiehl, B.; Yu, V. Y.; Sheng, K.; Kishan, A. U.; Chin, R. K.; Yang, Y.; Ruan, D. Analysis of Geometric Performance and Dosimetric Impact of Using Automatic Contour Segmentation for Radiotherapy Planning. Front. Oncol. 2020, 10, 1762.


  1. Woods, K.; Nguyen, D.; Neph, R.; Ruan, D.; O’Connor, D.; Sheng, K. A Sparse Orthogonal Collimator for Small Animal Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Part I: Planning System Development and Commissioning. Med. Phys. 2019, 46 (12), 5703–5713.
  2. Woods, K.; Neph, R.; Nguyen, D.; Sheng, K. A Sparse Orthogonal Collimator for Small Animal Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy. Part II: Hardware Development and Commissioning. Med. Phys. 2019, 46 (12), 5733–5747.
  3. Qi, X. S.; Yang, L.; Lee, P.; O’Connell, D.; Chu, F.-I.; Steinberg, M. L.; Low, D. A. Fast, Low-Dose Megavoltage-Topogram Localization on TomoTherapy: Initial Clinical Experience With Mesothelioma Patients. Pract. Radiat. Oncol. 2019, 9 (5), 373–380.
  4. O’Connell, D.; Thomas, D. H.; Lewis, J. H.; Hasse, K.; Santhanam, A.; Lamb, J. M.; Cao, M.; Tenn, S.; Agazaryan, N.; Lee, P. P.; Low, D. A. Safety-Oriented Design of in-House Software for New Techniques: A Case Study Using a Model-Based 4DCT Protocol. Med. Phys. 2019, 46 (4), 1523–1532.
  5. Lyu, Q.; Neph, R.; Yu, V. Y.; Ruan, D.; Sheng, K. Single-Arc VMAT Optimization for Dual-Layer MLC. Phys. Med. Biol. 2019, 64 (9), 095028.
  6. Hasse, K.; Neylon, J.; Min, Y.; O’Connell, D.; Lee, P.; Low, D. A.; Santhanam, A. P. Feasibility of Deriving a Novel Imaging Biomarker Based on Patient-Specific Lung Elasticity for Characterizing the Degree of COPD in Lung SBRT Patients. Br. J. Radiol. 2019, 92 (1094), 20180296.
  7. Guo, M.; Chee, G.; O’Connell, D.; Dhou, S.; Fu, J.; Singhrao, K.; Ionascu, D.; Ruan, D.; Lee, P.; Low, D. A.; Zhao, J.; Lewis, J. H. Reconstruction of a High-Quality Volumetric Image and a Respiratory Motion Model from Patient CBCT Projections. Med. Phys. 2019, 46 (8), 3627–3639.


  1. Yu, V. Y.; Landers, A.; Woods, K.; Nguyen, D.; Cao, M.; Du, D.; Chin, R. K.; Sheng, K.; Kaprealian, T. B. A Prospective 4π Radiation Therapy Clinical Study in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma Patients. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2018, 101 (1), 144–151.
  2. Thomas, D. H.; Tan, J.; Neylon, J.; Dou, T.; O’Connell, D.; McNitt-Gray, M.; Lee, P.; Lamb, J.; Low, D. A. Investigating the Minimum Scan Parameters Required to Generate Free-Breathing Motion Artefact-Free Fast-Helical CT. Br. J. Radiol. 2018, 91 (1082), 20170597.
  3. O’Connor, D.; Yu, V.; Nguyen, D.; Ruan, D.; Sheng, K. Fraction-Variant Beam Orientation Optimization for Non-Coplanar IMRT. Phys. Med. Biol. 2018, 63 (4), 045015.
  4. Lyu, Q.; Yu, V. Y.; Ruan, D.; Neph, R.; O’Connor, D.; Sheng, K. A Novel Optimization Framework for VMAT with Dynamic Gantry Couch Rotation. Phys. Med. Biol. 2018, 63 (12), 125013.
  5. Lyu, Q.; O’Connor, D.; Ruan, D.; Yu, V.; Nguyen, D.; Sheng, K. VMAT Optimization with Dynamic Collimator Rotation. Med. Phys. 2018, 45 (6), 2399–2410.
  6. Hegde, J. V.; Cao, M.; Yu, V. Y.; Kishan, A. U.; Shaverdian, N.; Lamb, J.; Steinberg, M. L. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guidance Mitigates the Effects of Intrafraction Prostate Motion During Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. Cureus 2018, 10 (4), e2442.
  7. Han, F.; Zhou, Z.; Du, D.; Gao, Y.; Rashid, S.; Cao, M.; Shaverdian, N.; Hegde, J. V.; Steinberg, M.; Lee, P.; Raldow, A.; Low, D. A.; Sheng, K.; Yang, Y.; Hu, P. Respiratory Motion-Resolved, Self-Gated 4D-MRI Using Rotating Cartesian K-Space (ROCK): Initial Clinical Experience on an MRI-Guided Radiotherapy System. Radiother. Oncol. J. Eur. Soc. Ther. Radiol. Oncol. 2018, 127 (3), 467–473.
  8. Gu, W.; O’Connor, D.; Nguyen, D.; Yu, V. Y.; Ruan, D.; Dong, L.; Sheng, K. Integrated Beam Orientation and Scanning-Spot Optimization in Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Brain and Unilateral Head and Neck Tumors. Med. Phys. 2018, 45 (4), 1338–1350.
  9. Ginn, J. S.; O’Connell, D.; Thomas, D. H.; Low, D. A.; Lamb, J. M. Model-Interpolated Gating for Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Radiation Therapy. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2018, 102 (4), 885–894.


  1. Tran, A.; Zhang, J.; Woods, K.; Yu, V.; Nguyen, D.; Gustafson, G.; Rosen, L.; Sheng, K. Treatment Planning Comparison of IMPT, VMAT and 4π Radiotherapy for Prostate Cases. Radiat. Oncol. Lond. Engl. 2017, 12 (1), 10.
  2. Tran, A.; Woods, K.; Nguyen, D.; Yu, V. Y.; Niu, T.; Cao, M.; Lee, P.; Sheng, K. Predicting Liver SBRT Eligibility and Plan Quality for VMAT and 4π Plans. Radiat. Oncol. Lond. Engl. 2017, 12 (1), 70.
  3. Neylon, J.; Min, Y.; Low, D. A.; Santhanam, A. A Neural Network Approach for Fast, Automated Quantification of DIR Performance. Med. Phys. 2017, 44 (8), 4126–4138.
  4. Neylon, J.; Min, Y.; Kupelian, P.; Low, D. A.; Santhanam, A. Analytical Modeling and Feasibility Study of a Multi-GPU Cloud-Based Server (MGCS) Framework for Non-Voxel-Based Dose Calculations. Int. J. Comput. Assist. Radiol. Surg. 2017, 12 (4), 669–680.
  5. Gao, Y.; Han, F.; Zhou, Z.; Cao, M.; Kaprealian, T.; Kamrava, M.; Wang, C.; Neylon, J.; Low, D. A.; Yang, Y.; Hu, P. Distortion-Free Diffusion MRI Using an MRI-Guided Tri-Cobalt 60 Radiotherapy System: Sequence Verification and Preliminary Clinical Experience. Med. Phys. 2017, 44 (10), 5357–5366.